食用菌对镉、铅、汞、砷生物富集状况研究进展
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(昆明理工大学 农业与食品学院, 云南 昆明 650500)

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Research Progress on Bioaccumulation of Cadmium, Lead, Mercury, and Arsenic by Edible Mushroom
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(Institute of Agriculture and Food,Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650500, China)

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    摘要:

    食用菌是味鲜、低热量、高蛋白、具有多种生物活性因子的健康食品,野生食用菌更是食物中的珍品。环境镉、铅、汞、砷污染日益严重,通过食物链并经口摄食是人体对环境中有害污染物最主要的暴露途径,所以食品中污染的镉、铅、汞、砷被认为是典型有毒元素。与维管植物相比,大型真菌对生长环境中的金属和类金属等矿质元素具有更强的吸收和富集性能,包括镉、铅、汞、砷。对食用菌中镉、铅、汞、砷的含量水平,在菌体中各部位的分布及其生物富集作用的研究进展进行了概述,特别关注了野生食用蘑菇中镉、铅、汞、砷的研究现状。研究表明通过选择优良品种、改善生产环境、改革栽培技术等,市售人工栽培食用菌在镉、铅、汞、砷的污染问题上有所控制,按照相关标准抽检合格率较高,基本能够保证质量安全。但是野生食用菌种类繁多,生长环境复杂,生长过程可控性差,因此需要进一步加强调研和食用安全风险评价,开发野生食用菌产品质量控制技术,保障消费者的健康。

    Abstract:

    Edible mushrooms are delicious and healthy foodstuffs. Wild edible mushrooms are favored for their texture and flavor as well as for their nutritional points. Environmental pollution of cadmium, lead, mercury, and arsenic is becoming more and more serious. The main exposure route of humans to harmful pollutants in the environment is by ingestion though food chain. So, cadmium, lead, mercury, and arsenic are considered as typical toxic elements in foods. Compared with vascular plants, macrofungi showed high contents of heavy metal elements, including cadmium, lead, mercury, and arsenic. This paper mainly summarized the levels of cadmium, lead, mercury, and arsenic in edible mushrooms, the distribution of heavy metals in fruiting body, and the bioaccumulation of edible mushroom to heavy metals. It specially focused on the research status of the bioaccumulation of wild edible mushrooms to cadmium, lead, mercury, and arsenic. From the studies, the cultivated edible mushrooms could show low contents of cadmium, lead, mercury, and arsenic, by breeding superior varieties and improving production conductions and cultivation techniques. According to the standards, cultivated samples have high qualification rates. However, wild edible mushrooms have a lot of varieties, and their growth conditions are uncontrolled. It is necessary to carry out further researches on the risk assessment of food safety of wild edible mushrooms, and develop quality control technologies of products from wild edible mushrooms to protect consumer’s health.

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庄永亮,肖俊江,孙丽平,李鹏程.食用菌对镉、铅、汞、砷生物富集状况研究进展[J].食品科学技术学报,2019,37(3):19-32.

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  • 收稿日期:2019-05-01
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  • 在线发布日期: 2019-06-17
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